Metta Anastashya | Student of International Relations
On January 22, 2020 is a historic day in the long journey of the Papua Special Autonomy Law (Otsus Papua) which was passed by the Indonesian Parliament through the Plenary Meeting of the National Legislation Program (Prolegnas) Priority Bill of Amendments to Law Number 21/2001 on Papua’s Special Autonomy which is 19 years old. The urgency for Papua’s Special Autonomy to enter the related Prolegnas in 2021 the Special Autonomy Law will end. The substance of the uniqueness of Special Autonomy for Papua includes an autonomy fund of two percent of the General Allocation Fund and that the disbursement of Special Autonomy funds continues under the mandate of the Papua Special Autonomy Law.
Implementation before the 20th anniversary of Papua’s Special Autonomy needs to be evaluated, especially the use of its budget and it is very normative to revise the regulatory aspects, because it is the hope of the Papuan people themselves, the Regional Government and also the Papuan People’s Council, especially since several proposals for this revision have often surfaced since 2014 until now. However, the revision of the Special Autonomy for Papua must also coincide with an evaluation step to answer the extent to which the implementation of the Special Autonomy Law will leverage the welfare of the people of Papua and West Papua.
Very touching on the statement from the President of the Republic of Indonesia, Jokowi has examined the dynamics of the breath of the Papua Special Autonomy Law which has been the government’s priority so far. What can still be improved, which we will fix, we will correct, we will evaluate,” Jokow Widodo
The presence of Otsus in Papua and West Papua cannot be denied that it can encourage development in the fields of education, health, people’s economy, and infrastructure despite all the shortcomings but shows the success of every era of government in overcoming the Papua problem. Even before the existence of Otsus, the issue of the Human Development Index (HDI) became the center of the issue of interest groups and armed forces in Papua in putting pressure on the government. Especially in the era of Jokowi’s administration, which is very observant and careful about the problem of poverty numbers which he continues to suppress. Then infrastructure in Papua was radically boosted including the budgetary funds which increased considerably every year.
The government is always looking for breakthroughs on how to balance development, even though the success has not been maximized, there is still hope. To achieve that expectation, an evaluation record is needed to what extent the effects of spending funds are right on target. The next option is to revise some regulations that have not been included in the Papua Special Autonomy Law which are the entry points for corruption by protecting against some weaknesses in the law.
Evaluating the effectiveness of the use of special autonomy funds in the era of the Minister of Home Affairs Tjahjo Komulo, the KPK succeeded in arresting two Aceh regional heads, namely the Governor of Aceh, Irwandi Yusuf, and the Regent of Bener Meriah, Ahmadi in receiving prizes related to the allocation and distribution of Aceh Special Autonomy funds for the 2018 budget year. In that era, in the era of Jokowi’s volume 2 government, Minister of Home Affairs Tito Karnavian will check and evaluate the Special Autonomy funds for Papua as mandated by the President of the Republic of Indonesia, that the program is not only sent, but the problem is whether it has been conveyed, or has been felt by the community.
Finally, the composition of the components is revised regarding the option of rules that clearly and regulates the use of the Special Autonomy funds so that there are tiered reference parameters for each level of the regional head in managing and being accountable for the funds. On the other hand, the paradigm of the emergence of Papua’s Special Autonomy funds for the strength of the local elite is a political grant so that it does not need to be accounted for. The option to abolish Otsus was replaced by the General Allocation Fund and the Special Allocation Fund to create an equal distribution of budget allocations throughout Indonesia. The DAK and DAU methods have proven to be easier to monitor the flow of these funds.
The Priority National Legislation Program (Prolegnas) Bill of Amendments to Law Number 21/2001 concerning Papua’s Special Autonomy is currently the concern of the public and other regional heads who are currently demanding regional expansion, so there is a potential risk when there are no significant changes in the Papua Special Autonomy Bill that can encourage the Province others asked for the same rights to disburse special autonomy funds such as Papua and West Papua which had an impact on the state budget. Excellent cooperation has made the development of special autonomy itself more advanced and has been successfully implemented in the society which can help balance the economy in Papua.